Auden who wrote of Nietzsche in his New Year Letter (released in 1941 in The Double Man): "O masterly debunker of our liberal fallacies ... all your life you stormed, like your English forerunner Blake. Nietzsche asserted that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs, but the act of valuing. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and then a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug and Wilhelm Pinder, all three of whom came from highly respected families. "[209] According to Nietzsche, it is only when nihilism is overcome that a culture can have a true foundation on which to thrive. Friedrich Nietzsche was also a pretty decent classical composer", "Hear Classical Music Composed by Friedrich Nietzsche: 43 Original Tracks", "Nietzsche's Apollonianism and Dionysiansism: Meaning and Interpretation", "SparkNotes: Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900): The Birth of Tragedy", "Culture and perspectivism in Nietzsche's and Weber's view", "Why Heidegger's 'History' of Metaphysics is Dead", "Zen and Zarathustra: Self-Overcoming without a Self", Féré et Nietzsche: au sujet de la décadence, Note sur Nietzsche et Lange: "Le retour éternel", "Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin (1770–1843)", 1910 article from the Encyclopædia Britannica, "The Romantics of 1909: Arthur Symons, Pierre Lasserre and T.E. Nietzsche presented this "master morality" as the original system of morality—perhaps best associated with Homeric Greece. A laughing stock or painful embarrassment. "Nietzsche and Jung: The whole self in the union of opposites" (London and New York: Routledge, 2004), Magnus and Higgins, "Nietzsche's works and their themes", in, O'Flaherty, James C., Sellner, Timothy F., Helm, Robert M., "Studies in Nietzsche and the Classical Tradition" (, O'Flaherty, James C., Sellner, Timothy F., Helm, Robert M., "Studies in Nietzsche and the Judaeo-Christian Tradition" (University of North Carolina Press) 1985. [123] Elisabeth had him buried beside his father at the church in Röcken Lützen. While in Genoa, Nietzsche's failing eyesight prompted him to explore the use of typewriters as a means of continuing to write. May, J. Rosenberg, Rorty, Richard. ", The initial form of morality was set by a warrior aristocracy and other ruling castes of ancient civilizations. In fact, interest in Nietzsche's thought did increase at this time, if rather slowly and hardly perceptibly to him. Nietzsche saw his own writings as "completely buried and in this anti-Semitic dump" of Schmeitzner—associating the publisher with a movement that should be "utterly rejected with cold contempt by every sensible mind. [113], Nietzsche's mental illness was originally diagnosed as tertiary syphilis, in accordance with a prevailing medical paradigm of the time. [297][298] Hermann Hesse, similarly, in his Narcissus and Goldmund presents two main characters as opposite yet intertwined Apollonian and Dionysian spirits. Hulme", "Wallace Stevens' Harmonium – Collaborative Essays and Articles – Geneseo Wiki", "Book: Ницше Фридрих Вильгельм. Nietzsche argued that the idea of equality allowed slaves to overcome their own conditions without despising themselves. In 1872, Nietzsche published his first book, The Birth of Tragedy. Indeed, Mazzino Montinari, the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass, called it a forgery.[125]. On 13 May, in Lucerne, when Nietzsche was alone with Salomé, he earnestly proposed marriage to her again, which she rejected. Hamlet falls under this category—he glimpsed the supernatural reality through the Ghost, he has gained true knowledge and knows that no action of his has the power to change this. [51] Nietzsche's parents, Carl Ludwig Nietzsche (1813–1849), a Lutheran pastor and former teacher; and Franziska Nietzsche (née Oehler) (1826–1897), married in 1843, the year before their son's birth. [277] Symons went on to compare the ideas of the two thinkers in The Symbolist Movement in Literature, while Yeats tried to raise awareness of Nietzsche in Ireland. Nietzsche is adamant that the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles represent the apex of artistic creation, the true realization of tragedy; it is with Euripides, that tragedy begins its Untergang (literally 'going under' or 'downward-way;' meaning decline, deterioration, downfall, death, etc.). Nietzsche. ISBN 13: 9788868262754. 1988. He was regarded as one of the finest riders among his fellow recruits, and his officers predicted that he would soon reach the rank of captain. In 1879, after a significant decline in health, Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel. Lo Stato di diritto e la morte dello Stato in Nietzsche; Italiano. [151] It is also known that Nietzsche frequented heterosexual brothels. La teologia delia morte di DioIneontri culturali Perche 1'etica, perche il trágicoPrassi e teoria Nietzsche e !a filosofia . Language: italian. [March 1887] 1921. File: EPUB, 222 KB. [233] In this way Zarathustra proclaims his ultimate goal as the journey towards the state of overman. Fornisce a ricercatori, amministratori e valutatori gli strumenti per monitorare i risultati della ricerca, aumentarne la visibilità e allocare in modo efficace le risorse disponibili. "[141] Nietzsche believed his name might have been Germanized, in one letter claiming, "I was taught to ascribe the origin of my blood and name to Polish noblemen who were called Niëtzky and left their home and nobleness about a hundred years ago, finally yielding to unbearable suppression: they were Protestants. Similar Items. We are deprived of strength when we feel pity. I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. "[232] Zarathustra presents the overman as the creator of new values, and he appears as a solution to the problem of the death of God and nihilism. Please login to your account first; Need help? Let you will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth ... Man is a rope, tied between beast and overman—a rope over an abyss ... what is great in man is that he is a bridge and not an end. [302] Nietzsche had a distinct appeal for many Zionist thinkers around the start of the 20th century, most notable being Ahad Ha'am,[303] Hillel Zeitlin,[304] Micha Josef Berdyczewski, A.D. Gordon[305] and Martin Buber, who went so far as to extoll Nietzsche as a "creator" and "emissary of life". [108] Nietzsche's reception and recognition enjoyed their first surge. At the core of his theory is a rejection of atomism—the idea that matter is composed of stable, indivisible units (atoms). [160] According to Laurence Lampert, "the death of God must be followed by a long twilight of piety and nihilism (II. It was probably Lichtenberg (along with Paul Rée) whose aphoristic style of writing contributed to Nietzsche's own use of aphorism. He overestimated the increasing response to his writings, however, especially to the recent polemic, The Case of Wagner. During these years Nietzsche met Meta von Salis, Carl Spitteler, and Gottfried Keller. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. In Also Sprach Zarathustra, Nietzsche proclaimed that a table of values hangs above every great person. She studied Nietzsche's works and, piece by piece, took control of their publication. [71] To this day, Nietzsche is still among the youngest of the tenured Classics professors on record. Whitlock, G. 1996. "[192] Nietzsche waged a philosophic war against the slave morality of Christianity in his "revaluation of all values" to bring about the victory of a new master morality that he called the "philosophy of the future" (Beyond Good and Evil is subtitled Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future).[193]. In 1873, Nietzsche began to accumulate notes that would be posthumously published as Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks. "The Struggle with the Daemon" is a brilliant analysis of the European psyche by the great novelist and biographer Stefan Zweig. The Russian painter Lena Hades created the oil painting cycle Also Sprach Zarathustra dedicated to the book Thus Spoke Zarathustra. However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza, he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray? In Daybreak, Nietzsche began his "Campaign against Morality". CINECA IRIS Institutional Research Information System. Thus the values a community strives to articulate are not as important as the collective will to see those values come to pass. His inaugural lecture at the university was "Homer and Classical Philology". [310][311][312] Nietzsche's influence on the works of Frankfurt School philosophers Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno[313] can be seen in the Dialectic of Enlightenment. 70–79. In response, Rohde (then a professor in Kiel) and Wagner came to Nietzsche's defense. Life turns away from itself as there is nothing of value to be found in the world. They had two other children: a daughter, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, born in 1846; and a second son, Ludwig Joseph, born in 1848. [246] Due to his Heraclitean sympathies, Nietzsche was also a vociferous critic of Parmenides, who, in contrast to Heraclitus, viewed the world as a single, unchanging Being. Hecker, Hellmuth. Ediz. This letter contains the following statement: Hence the ways of men part: if you wish to strive for peace of soul and pleasure, then believe; if you wish to be a devotee of truth, then inquire....[64]. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. [103][104], In the following few days, Nietzsche sent short writings—known as the Wahnzettel ("Madness Letters")—to a number of friends including Cosima Wagner and Jacob Burckhardt. [128][129][130] Germany had not yet been unified into a nation-state, but Nietzsche was born a citizen of Prussia, which was then part of the German Confederation. He continued to have frequent and painful attacks of illness, which made prolonged work impossible. Italiano; English; One of the keys to understanding the relationship between state and anarchy in Nietzsche’s thought is the antagonism between Apollo and Dionysus highlighted by the German philosopher in many passages of his early works, such as the Birth of Tragedy. Mussolini,[318][319] Charles de Gaulle[320] and Huey P. Newton[321] read Nietzsche. [148] Reflecting on unrequited love, Nietzsche considered that "indispensable ... to the lover is his unrequited love, which he would at no price relinquish for a state of indifference. 1941. "IDYLLIC HEROISM: NIETZSCHE'S VIEW OF EPICURUS.” Journal of Nietzsche Studies, no. Nietzsche's friendship with Deussen and Rohde cooled as well. He associated slave morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions, as it is born out of the ressentiment of slaves. The "good man" of master morality is precisely the "evil man" of slave morality, while the "bad man" is recast as the "good man". g |last=Arena |first=Leonardo Vittorio |title=Nietzsche in China in the XXth Century |publisher=ebook |year=2012}}. Even though the concept is famously related to The Birth of Tragedy, the poet Hölderlin had already spoken of it, and Winckelmann had talked of Bacchus. Hans von Müller debunked the genealogy put forward by Nietzsche's sister in favor of Polish noble heritage. This leads to his conclusion that European culture, from the time of Socrates, had always been only Apollonian, thus decadent and unhealthy. Nietzsche would ultimately argue the impossibility of an evolutionary explanation of the human aesthetic sense. ... All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood, and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man? [110] Langbehn assumed progressively greater control of Nietzsche until his secretiveness discredited him. The Interior Life of Friedrich Nietzsche", "Who knew? Nietzsche was surreptitiously accompanied to a "call house" from which he clumsily escaped upon seeing "a half dozen apparitions dressed in sequins and veils." Hi Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (natawo Oktubre 15, 1844 - namatay Agosto 25, 1900) amo an usa nga manunurat nga alemano ngan pilosopo. Because his father had worked for the state (as a pastor) the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta (the claim that Nietzsche was admitted on the strength of his academic competence has been debunked: his grades were not near the top of the class). Between 1873 and 1876, he published four separate long essays: "David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer", "On the Use and Abuse of History for Life", "Schopenhauer as Educator", and "Richard Wagner in Bayreuth". With the publication in 1878 of Human, All Too Human (a book of aphorisms ranging from metaphysics to morality to religion), a new style of Nietzsche's work became clear, highly influenced by Afrikan Spir's Thought and Reality[82] and reacting against the pessimistic philosophy of Wagner and Schopenhauer. I teach you the overman. He went on to list the number of people Epicurus, for example, had to rely on to supply his simple diet of goat cheese.[86]. However, in 1888 the influential Danish critic Georg Brandes aroused considerable excitement about Nietzsche through a series of lectures he gave at the University of Copenhagen. "[239], Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view of modern society and culture. Huskinson, Lucy. [65] There, he became close friends with his fellow student Erwin Rohde. He read Kant, Plato, Mill, Schopenhauer and Spir,[241] who became the main opponents in his philosophy, and later Baruch Spinoza, whom he saw as his "precursor" in many respects[242] but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others. Frederick Delius produced a piece of choral music, A Mass of Life, based on a text of Thus Spoke Zarathustra, while Richard Strauss (who also based his Also sprach Zarathustra on the same book), was only interested in finishing "another chapter of symphonic autobiography. "[92] In later recriminations, Nietzsche would blame on separate occasions the failure in his attempts to woo Salomé on Salomé, Rée, and on the intrigues of his sister (who had written letters to the families of Salomé and Rée to disrupt the plans for the commune). Humanity still has no goal." Scientific developments and the increasing secularization of Europe had effectively 'killed' the Abrahamic God, who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for more than a thousand years. Yeats and Arthur Symons described Nietzsche as the intellectual heir to William Blake. "La follia è nei singoli qualcosa di raro – ma nei gruppi, nei partiti, nei popoli, nelle epoche è la regola." The Nazis tried to incorporate the concept into their ideology. J.L. Friedrich Nietzsche, Alexandre Herzen (fils) und Charles Féré 1888. Steiner abandoned the attempt after only a few months, declaring that it was impossible to teach her anything about philosophy. Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence: Nehamas concluded that, if individuals constitute themselves through their actions, they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions (Nehamas, 153). [69], With Ritschl's support, Nietzsche received a remarkable offer, in 1869, to become a professor of classical philology at the University of Basel in Switzerland. Nietzsche remarked freely about the isolation he felt within the philological community and attempted unsuccessfully to transfer to a position in philosophy at Basel. He also shared Nietzsche's view of tragedy. [61] In addition, Ludwig Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity influenced young Nietzsche with its argument that people created God, and not the other way around. [253] Nietzsche early learned of Darwinism through Friedrich Albert Lange. Nell'aforisma 125 della Gaia scienza, l'uomo folle annuncia la morte di Dio #nietzsche #uomofolle #gaiascienza #mortedidio #superuomo #oltreuomo … [261][262][263][264][265][266][267], In 1861 Nietzsche wrote an enthusiastic essay on his "favorite poet," Friedrich Hölderlin, mostly forgotten at that time. După «Nietzsche-Lexicon» editat de Prof. Cristian Niemeyer (2009), cu participarea a 150 de cercetători specialiști în filozofia lui Nietzsche, sora sa, Elisabeth Forster a măsluit masiv și sistematic opera marelui filosof. Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution. Friedrich Nietzsche, Complete Works Vol. [45] He also developed influential concepts such as the Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return. "[245] The pre-Socratic thinker Heraclitus was known for rejecting the concept of being as a constant and eternal principle of the universe and embracing "flux" and incessant change. Nietzsche stood at the beginning of his most productive period. In this mold, a man appears as the satyr. According to this view, our existence (action, suffering, willing, feeling) has no meaning: this 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos—an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists. Nietzsche saw slave morality as pessimistic and fearful, its values emerging to improve the self-perception of slaves. Value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness, charity, piety, restraint, meekness, and submission; while evil is worldly, cruel, selfish, wealthy, and aggressive. [270], Nietzsche's works did not reach a wide readership during his active writing career. The death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism, the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose. Salomé reports that he asked her to marry him on three separate occasions and that she refused, though the reliability of her reports of events is questionable. Nietzsche e la morte di Dio . "[124], Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche compiled The Will to Power from Nietzsche's unpublished notebooks and published it posthumously. Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism. 1981. Zarathustra contrasts the overman with the last man of egalitarian modernity (the most obvious example being democracy), an alternative goal humanity might set for itself. [292] In Russia, Nietzsche influenced Russian symbolism[293] and figures such as Dmitry Merezhkovsky,[294] Andrei Bely,[295] Vyacheslav Ivanov and Alexander Scriabin incorporated or discussed parts of Nietzsche philosophy in their works. [324] Georg Simmel compares Nietzsche's importance to ethics to that of Copernicus for cosmology. In 1870, he gave Cosima Wagner the manuscript of "The Genesis of the Tragic Idea" as a birthday gift. [56], While at Schulpforta, Nietzsche pursued subjects that were considered unbecoming. [102] Two policemen approached him after he caused a public disturbance in the streets of Turin. Gaddis, P.H. Afrikan Spir, a little-known Russian philosopher responsible for the 1873 Thought and Reality and Nietzsche's colleague, the famed historian Jacob Burckhardt, whose lectures Nietzsche frequently attended, began to exercise significant influence on him.[80]. [171] He notes that whenever Apollonian culture dominates, the Dionysian lacks the structure to make a coherent art, and when Dionysian dominates, the Apollonian lacks the necessary passion. [256] Hippolyte Taine influenced Nietzsche's view on Rousseau and Napoleon. [88] Rée accepted the idea and suggested that they be joined by his friend Nietzsche. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMagnus1999 (, Nietzsche, Friedrich. [168][169] For the audience of such drama, this tragedy allows them to sense what Nietzsche called the Primordial Unity, which revives Dionysian nature. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism;[48] 20th-century scholars contested this interpretation, and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available. p. 11 of his transl. Oltre l'abisso. He also contracted diphtheria and dysentery. In 1866, he read Friedrich Albert Lange's History of Materialism. Many political leaders of the twentieth century were at least superficially familiar with Nietzsche's ideas, although it is not always possible to determine whether they actually read his work. [131] His birthplace, Röcken, is in the modern German state of Saxony-Anhalt. 250-278), il saggio dello stesso Treiber, Il monastero di N ietzsche degli “spiriti liberi”. A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the "will to power" (der Wille zur Macht), which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival. 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